
Glossary
Analyze Second phase of the Breakthrough Strategy. Asks, "When and where do defects occur?"
Benchmarking An analysis of your current performance relative to your competition and the best practices of others.
Black Belts Fulltime Six Sigma Project Leaders. They coach Project Teams and carry out projects to improve processes that influence customer satisfaction.
Black Noise The "assignable cause" variation present in a process. It is a controllable variation.
Brainstorming Allows generation of a high volume of ideas quickly.
Breakthrough Six Sigma methodology for process analysis, optimization strategy and control. Has four phases: Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control.
Cause/Effect Diagram Helps identify potential problem causes and focuses brainstorming. Also called a Fishbone Diagram.
Champions Senior management leaders who approve projects, fund projects and remove roadblocks to project success.
Confidence Interval A measure of certainty of the shape of a fitted regression line. In general, a 95% confidence interval implies a 95% chance that the true line shape lies within the band.
Continuous Data Measures value. Includes Regression Analysis and Regression for Tolerancing.
Control The fourth phase of the breakthrough strategy. Asks, "How can we make the process stay fixed?"
Control Charts Helps to spot changes in the process mean and range over time.
Cost of Poor Quality All additional costs to business resulting from poor quality, such as scrap, rework, rejects, warranties, lost sales, lost customer loyalty.
CTQ Critical to Quality. A product feature or process step that must be controlled to guarantee that you deliver what the customer wants.
Customer Satisfaction Measurement Part of the Six Sigma Dashboard. Uses customer surveys to grade our performance, and reports out a quantitative measure of the number of defects multiplied by 1,000,000 survey responses.
Defects Any nonconformities in a process or product.
Design for Six Sigma Measurement Part of the Six Sigma Dashboard (applies only to products in the NPI process). Helps to determine how well the design process aids Six Sigma production. Measures the % of drawings reviewed for CTQs, and the % of CTQs designed to Six Sigma.
Discrete Data Data in which defects are counted by discrete outcomes (yes/no, male/female, red/green/blue, etc.)
DPMO Defects Per Million Opportunities. At Six Sigma, there are fewer than 4 defects per million opportunities.
DPO Defects Per Opportunity
DPU Defects Per Unit
Fishbone Diagram See Cause/Effect Diagram.
Flowcharting Displays the actual steps of a process. Used to examine areas of improvement.
Green Belts Receive the same training as Black Belts, but continue working at their regular responsibilities and work parttime at Six Sigma duties.
Hidden Factory Reprocessing loops in engineering and in the factory (rework loops, etc.).
Histogram A chart, usually a bar graph, which shows the number of times each measured value occurs.
House of Quality See QFD.
Improve The third phase of the Breakthrough Strategy. Asks, "How can we fix the process?"
Internal Performance Measurement Part of the Six Sigma Dashboard. Measures the defects generated by our processes. Compares the number of defects against the number of CTQs.
KQC Key Quality Characteristics.
L1 Spreadsheet Summarizes the DPMO at the part, subassembly and system levels.
L2 Spreadsheet Analyzes the continous data vs. the upper/lower specification limit.
Master Black Belts Fulltime leaders, teachers, and coaches with strong quantitative, teaching and leadership skills, who train and mentor Black Belts, and work with Champions to establish project priorities and goals.
Mean The average of measured data.
Measure The first phase of the Breakthrough Strategy. Asks, "What is the frequency of defects?"
Normal Distribution A bellshaped curve showing a frequency distribution which often occurs in nature.
Opportunity For Defect Any characteristic you measure or test.
Pareto A process to help focus on the vital few.
Process Capability A measure of the ability of a process to produce an errorfree product, by comparing the variability of the process with the variability acceptable to the customer.
Project Teams Work on Black Belt projects while retaining their existing job responsibilities. All employees will eventually serve on a project team.
QFD Quality Function Deployment. A process used to learn what the customer needs and wants, then to translate that into specific product requirements and CTQ features. Also known as House of Quality.
Quality Leaders General Managers and their direct reports, who establish Quality priorities, review the progress of Customer Focus Teams, and ensure the allocation/dedication of resources.
Sigma See Standard Deviation.
Six Sigma A process capability in which variability is reduced so that 6 standard deivations fit between the process mean and the specification limits. This means that 99.99966% of all products fall within the spec limits.
Six Sigma Dashboard Five standard corporate measurements: Customer Satisfaction, Cost of Poor Quality, Supplier Quality, Internal Performance, and Design for Six Sigma.
Specification Limit (Spec Limit) The tolerance or allowable variation of a characteristic  the "acceptable window."
Standard Deviation A statistical measure which quantifies the amount of variation in a process.
Supplier Quality Measurement Tracks defectives  parts returned or reworked, or outside of schedule.
Units A determined amount or quantity (of parts, subassemblies, systems, etc.) adopted as a standard of measurement.
Vital Few The most independent variables in a process. The things which have the greatest impact on the outcome of the process.
White Noise The "common cause" variation present in every process. It is not controllable. The variability of a process with only white noiseis called the Process Entitlement.

